In Henoch-Schoenlein purpura urticaria-like lesions, bruising and arthralgias are common symptoms; the same symptoms can be evident in urticaria when edema affects the periarticular skin. Therefore, the two disorders should be differentiated.
The pustule is a few millimeters in size cavity. Inside the cavity the normal structure of the skin is overthrown and substituted by partially destroyed polymorphonuclear granulocytes and cell residua. This is why an enough large pustule may lead to scarring. The scars following varicella and acne are an example. The pustules may be located within the epidermis at the dermo-epidermal junction or around the pilosebaceous and sweat skin appendages both within the epidermis and within the dermis. (...).
Sometimes, the angiomatous lesions of the skin in the newborn cannot be easily classified in the first days of life. In the last three years 25 newborns with precursory lesions of hemangioma (HE) and 12 with port-wine stain (PWS) were investigated with an optic probe videocapillaroscopy at 200x magnification. The study was carried out during the first 48 hours of life and about 20 days later. In the two groups of patients different and easily differentiable capillaroscopy findings were observed, confirming the usefulness of this examination in the differential diagnosis of angiomatous lesions. Particularly, the flat precursory lesions of HE showed an irregular and dilated subpapillary plexus with findings reminiscent of microaneurisms, sometimes with a rosary distrubution (Presented in the International Congress of Neonatal Dermatology, Bari, Italy, September 24-27, 1998).
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilo-sebaceous, influenced by hormonal factors. The word "acne" comes from the Greek and it means "to flourish", and thus has the same meaning of exanthem. From the original "akm" became "akn", due to a mistake of transcription of the copiers of Aezio. The word "vulgaris" refers to the fact that is the most frequent form of acne, as pemphigus vulgaris, verruca vulgaris and pyoderma vulgaris are the most frequent forms in the group of respectively pemphigus, warts and pyoderma. At the end of this chapter we will mention the other, less frequent form of acne [...].
In 1952 the introduction of hydrocortisone led to a revolution in the field of topical antiinflammatory treatment. In the '60ies the indications of topical corticosteroid treatment were defined. Since then, new, always stronger molecules were introduced. In the '70ies the side effects of topical corticosteroid treatment came out. The severe side effects gave raise to a prejudicial fear against this treatment in the '80ies. Therefore, for a period of 15 years no new corticosteroid molecules were introduced. On the other hand, at the end of '90ies non corticosteroid antiinflammatory drugs appeared. In the recent years appeared always stronger non corticosteroid antiinflammatory drugs such as furalglucytole, tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981 and tazarotene, In the meantime, the corticosteroid creams improved significantly, due to the marked reduction of side effects, the more acceptable organoleptic characteristics and, finally, the more comfortable administration (monoadministration). The cost of these topical drugs, usually more expensive for the non corticosteroid products, should not be forgotten in the final choice of the topical antiinflammatory treatment (Presented in the International Congress of Neonatal Dermatology - Bari - Italy, September 24-27, 1998).
During summertime, which is characterized by permanently fine weather and increased sun exposure, most dermatological disorders improve, from dermatitis, such as atopic eczema and psoriasis, to acne and some genetically determined disorders, such as ichthyosis and follicular keratosis. We quoted only some well-known disorders.
A cutaneous nodule is a circumscribed relief of the skin, which persists for weeks. In this chapter are included the skin disorders characterized by nodular infiltration of the dermis, both of the inflammatory (granuloma) and proliferative type. We will initially treat the inflammatory or granulomatous nodular lesions, which are caused by infectious agents -viruses, bacteria and fungi-, by infestation -leishmaniasis, scabies and tick bite, by other agents -post-traumatic granuloma and granuloma gluteale infantum- or by not defined causes -annular granuloma, granuloma faciale and sarcoidosis-.
We did not find in literature alterations similar to those we found in this boy. The clinical and histological findings resemble those of knuckle pads and pachydactyly (1, 5). These lesions are observed in genetically predisposed individuals and sometimes are part of complex genetic syndromes (3) as Dupuytren’s contracture, induratio penis plastica, fibromatosis affecting the plantar aponeurosis and Bart-Pumphrey syndrome (knuckle pads, leukonychia, deafness). When they are not part of these syndromes and are not due to major or repeated trauma we talk about knuckle pads and pachydermodactyly; in the presence of trauma we talk about callosities; an example of those are chewing the hands (7) or other tics (6) and callosities related to sport or manual activities (2, 4). In the actual case, the histological examination, in addition to the increased skin thickness also highlighted areas of neoangiogenesis: this could be the result of repeated microtraumas resulting in alteration of the lymphatic drainage and chronic hypoxia. It is possible that repeated minor traumas in a subject genetically predisposed are at the origin of these peroneal pads.
Eosinophilic granuloma is part of the clinical spectrum of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), that ranges from congenital LC histiocytoma, to congenital LCH Hashimoto-Pritzker type, to acquired self-healing LCH till to multisystem acquired LCH without or with organ dysfunction. Eosinophilic granuloma, usually involving the bone, is often diagnosed after the second year of life; its clinical course is favorable towards the remission, which is spontaneous or favored by curettage or radiation therapy. The skin can be affected in contiguity with the bone lesions or even at a distance, more often in periorificial sites (1). The primary involvement of the skin is rather exceptional (2). Its prognosis is good by analogy to eosinophilic granuloma of the bone. However, the rarity of published cases suggests careful clinical monitoring.